Kaja Antlej

Doctoral Dissertation

3D Technologies as a Support for Industrial Design Museum Exhibition (in Slovenian language: 3D‐tehnologije kot podpora muzejski razstavi industrijskega oblikovanja)

Kaja ANTLEJ (author), Mateja KOS (mentor), Jasna HORVAT (comentor), 3D Technologies as a Support for Industrial Design Museum Exhibition (doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana), Ljubljana 2013.

The doctoral thesis addresses the usefulness of 3D technologies for interpreting museum objects in an industrial design exhibition for the purpose of enhancing the inclusiveness, experience and active participation of visitors. 3D technologies are becoming one of the key communication tools in museums. Their significance lies in facilitating the representation of space in a way that did not exist before these technologies arrived. 3D technologies are roughly divided into stereoscopy and techniques that, also with the support of 3D computer graphics, flat outline spatial geometry. Stereoscopy enables the illusion of depth and originates from the concept of binocular vision. On the other hand, the essence of the computer flat outlining of space lies mainly in providing a dynamic and interactive presentation of content, which has become an crucial tool for interpreting heritage not only in museum exhibitions, but also beyond – in a physical, virtual or mixed form.

Everything starts with good documentation of a heritage object which today can also be achieved with the support of 3D technologies. First, a 3D digitisation of the original content and/or reconstruction with the help of geometric modelling based on other sources to create a digital copy of the object, called a 3D computer model, need to be done. This serves as the information carrier and basic element for further interpretation. Results of the interpretation can be found in the form of a virtual museum, an existing social network in the way of a virtual world, as an augmented reality mobile application, but it can also be made tangible in the form of physical models directly through additive manufacturing. Of course, this all depends on who we want to provide information about the museum object to and what kind of message we want to communicate. With such content, it is important to ensure that an exhibition visitor or Internet user with remote access is appropriately included, and given the opportunity for sufficient active participation and experience.

I verified the use of 3D technologies in heritage interpretation with the object of the K67 kiosk (1966), internationally recognized design icon made by the Slovenian architect and designer Saša J. Mächtig. Importance of the K67 is not negligible even from the viewpoint of the local community, which sees the K67 kiosk as part of its collective memory. The object is becoming ever more threatened, and we need to ensure that it receives an adequate interpretation.

In the thesis I prepared proposals for the interpretation of the K67 kiosk. An interactive 3D computer model, a physical 3D printed model, a serious game »3D puzzle«, an augmented reality mobile application and the idea of the 3D digitisation of existing K67 units in collaboration with the public (see You Tube and Sketchfab) were created. These proposals can be used for the planned exhibition of the author’s works, or for any future exhibition. Any other museum object can also be presented in the same way, but always in line with the idea that technology is only a tool of interpretation, but not an item for ostentatious museum presentations.

K67 kiosk FORA Print Shop, Ljubljana, Slovenia
by Kaja Antlej
on Sketchfab

Key words
3D technologies, museum, exhibition, industrial design, 3D digitisation, additive manufacturing, 3D printing, 3D modelling, museum object, interpretation tools, interpretation

Table of contents
1 Introduction (8)
1.1 Presentation of research topic (8)
1.2 Hypotheses, objectives and purpose of the research (12)
1.3 Scientific methods (14)
1.4 Structure of work (15)
2 Perception and outlining of space (17)
2.1 Depth vision and use of monocular cues (18)
2.2 Projections (20)
2.3 Cartesian spatial coordinate system (22)
3 Definition of 3D technologies (23)
3.1 Term: 3D (23)
3.1.1 Terms: 3D and 2.5D (25)
3.1.2 Term: technology (27)
3.2 Scientific positioning of 3D technologies (28)
4 Overview of 3D technologies and their applications in cultural heritage (29)
4.1 Stereoscopy (31)
4.2 Autostereoscopy (35)
4.3 Outlining of space with computer graphics (41)
4.3.1 A brief historical overview of the development of computer graphics (42)
4.3.2 Applications of computer graphics (44)
4.3.3 Geometric modeling (47)
4.4 3D digitisation (53)
4.4.1 Procedures of 3D digitisation (54)
4.4.2 Steps of 3D digitisation (60)
4.5 Determination of optical features of objects (63)
4.6 Rendering and pre‐rendered animation (64)
4.7 Real‐time 3D applications (66)
4.7.1 Relationship between real and virtual (67)
4.7.2 Virtual reality (69)
4.7.3 Virtual worlds (72)
4.7.4 Augmented reality (75)
4.7.5 Serious games (80)
4.8 Integration of 3D content in the society: the issue of accessibility and outreach (85)
4.9 Standardization of recording and long‐term document preservation (90)
4.10 Direct manufacturing with additive technologies (93)
4.10.1 Overview of the development of additive technologies and problems of terminology (95)
4.10.2 Procedures of additive manufacturing (98)
4.10.3 Steps of additive manufacturing (103)
4.10.4 Applications of additive manufacturing (106)
5 Ensuring a protection of intellectual property (114)
6 The role of a museum in today’s society (117)
6.1 Definition of modern museum (117)
6.2 The basic differences between traditional and modern museum (119)
6.3 Information age and forms of museum cooperation (122)
6.3.1 Cooperation between a museum and the public (123)
6.3.2 Cooperation between a museum and other heritage institutions (128)
6.3.3 Virtual museum as a result of museum cooperation (133)
7 Museum object (139)
7.1 Interpretation of museum object (142)
7.1.1 The use of substitute in the interpretation of museum object (145)
8 Modern museum exhibition (152)
8.1 Types of museum exhibitions (156)
8.2 Communication process at museum exhibition (158)
8.3 Interpretation tools at museum exhibition (159)
8.4 Users of interpretation tools (164)
9 Examples of 3D‐aided projects, exhibitions and interpretations of museum objects (167)
9.1 Digital Michelangelo Project (167)
9.2 Statue of Artemis in the National Conservation Centre in Liverpool (171)
9.3 Britain’s interactive museum of popular music British Music Experience (174)
9.4 Interactive Multimedia Centre World of Energy (176)
10 Musealisation and museum exhibition of industrial design (180)
10.1 Definition of industrial design (180)
10.2 A brief historical overview of Slovenian industrial design (182)
10.3 Development of musealisation and exhibiting of industrial design objects (184)
10.4 Examples of 3D‐aided industrial design exhibitions (190)
11 Proposal for 3D content for the retrospective exhibition of designer Sasa J. Mächtig: an attempt at interpretation of the kiosk K67 (194)
11.1 The kiosk system K67 (194)
11.2 Anthropological definition of a kiosk (198)
11.3 Problems of musealisation and exhibiting of the K67 (201)
11.4 The K67 as a motif in art/research and other projects (204)
11.5 Attempt at interpretation of the kiosk K67 using 3D tools (207)
11.5.1 Documentation of the object and design of its 3D computer model (210)
11.5.2 Model of the K67 in a traveling exhibition Silent Revolutions (217)
11.5.3 Serious game Compose your own kiosk K67 (222)
11.5.4 Application of augmented reality Hungry Dragon AR (232)
11.5.5 Virtualization of original kiosk K67 (247)
12 Concluding chapters (250)
12.1 Verification of hypotheses (250)
12.2 Contribution of research to the profession and science and the usefulness of its results (251)
12.3 Fields for further research (252)
12.4 Conclusion (253)
13 List of used literature and resources (258)
13.1 Monographs, articles, reports and other documents in printed form (258)
13.2 Articles, reports and other documents in electronic format (271)
13.3 Websites of persons, organizations, products and brands (282)
13.4 TV shows, movies, video, audio (285)
13.5 The interviews, e‐mails and newsletters (286)
14 List of abbreviations (287)
15 List of tables and images (291)
15.1 Tables (291)
15.2 Schemes (291)
15.3 Images (292)
16 Summary in Slovenian (295)
17 Summary in English (297)
18 Attachments (299)

An attempt at interpretation of the K67 kiosk using 3D technologies was made in collaboration with its author Saša J. Mächtig during the research program of Kaja Antlej, Young Researcher from Business (2009-2013) at IB-PROCADD d.o.o. company and Doctoral Study in Heritology (Heritage Studies), Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana.

Project was made in cooperation with: Kaja Antlej (heritology/museology, interpretation and technology application research), Kristjan Celec (3D digitisation and data editing), Darja Ljubič (3D modeling), Menaf Sinani (3D printing), Simon Demšar in Luka Planinc (2D digitisation) and others.

Used equipment: 3D printer Spectrum Z510 (Z Corporation), ZPrint (Z Corporation), ZEdit (Z Corporation), 3D scanner ZScanner 800 (Z Corporation), Geomagic Studio (Geomagic), Magics (Materialise), Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros), Photoshop (Adobe), CorelDraw (Corel), 2D scanner HD 4230 (Contex), Nextimage (Contex).

Mentors of the research program: Edvard Sternad, IB-PROCADD d.o.o. (development mentor), Prof. Dr. Slavko Dolinšek, Institute for Innovation and Development of University of Ljubljana (external research mentor), Assist. Prof. Dr. Mateja Kos, National Museum of Slovenia (pedagogical mentor).

Operation part financed by the European Union, European Social Fund.

PPT presentation: Antlej_K67__ENG.


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